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Lithium mine in the world and Iran

Lithium mine in the world and Iran

Lithium ore: Lithium is a chemical element that is found in small amounts in the earth’s crust. It is known for its light weight, high energy density and conductive properties, making it a vital element for various industries. Lithium is a chemical element in the periodic table with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. This element is from the group of alkali metals and is naturally present in hard ash and sepiolite mines. This article from Maad Gilsonite mine will provide you with all the information you need about lithium mining.

What is lithium?

Lithium is an alkali metal element known by the chemical symbol Li and atomic number 3. This metal, under standard conditions of temperature and pressure, is known as the lightest metal and also the least dense solid element. Lithium is actually a soft metal with a silver color. Like other alkaline elements, lithium is highly reactive and flammable. For this reason, it is used under oil to protect it in industrial or petroleum environments.
     Symbol: Li
     Atomic number: 3
     Van der Waals radius: 182 picometers
     Atomic radius: 152 picometers
     Electron arrangement: 1s²2s¹
     Atomic mass: 6.941 atomic mass units (u)
     Melting point: 180.5 degrees Celsius

The physical and chemical characteristics of lithium are:


Lithium is a chemical element in the periodic table with the symbol Li and atomic number 3 and is in the category of alkali metals. Next, we will examine the physical and chemical characteristics of this element:

     Atomic mass: The atomic mass of lithium is about 6.94 g/mol.
     Density: The density of lithium at room temperature is about 0.53 grams per cubic centimeter.
     Melting point: The melting point of lithium is around 180.5 degrees Celsius.
     Boiling point: The boiling point of lithium is around 1362 degrees Celsius.
     Color: Lithium is a silver-white metal.
     Crystal structure: Lithium is in the body-centered cubic crystal structure.
     Chemical properties: Lithium is a relatively soft and light metal and does not easily react with air and water. But in the presence of water, oxygen and air, lithium can be oxidized.
     Oxidation State: The oxidation state of lithium is +1, which means that it readily donates an electron.

The physical and chemical characteristics of lithium may change under different conditions and the above values are approximate.

lithium mine


Lithium deposits exist all over the world and are mainly found in sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks and groundwater. Some of the countries with lithium mineral resources include Australia, Chile, Argentina, Zimbabwe, Puerto Rico, Canada and China.

The extraction of lithium from mines depends on the type of mine and the extraction method. Extraction methods include direct extraction from the mine, extraction through the hydrometallurgical process, extraction through the pyrometallurgical process, and extraction through the leaching process.

Application of lithium

Due to its special chemical properties, lithium is used in many industries. One of the important uses of lithium is in the production of rechargeable batteries. Lithium batteries are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries used in today’s electronic devices such as cell phones, laptops, and digital devices.

In addition, lithium has various applications in the glass industry, metal industry, pharmaceutical industry, nuclear industry and petrochemical industry. For example, lithium compounds are used in the production of transparent and hard glass, and lithium carbonate is used in the production of aluminum alloys and in electrolysis processes.

Also, lithium is used as a medicine and is effective in the treatment of some mental disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder (bipolar affective disorder).

How is lithium used in batteries?

Lithium is used as an important element in the battery industry. Lithium batteries are a type of rechargeable battery that comes in different types, including lithium-ion batteries and lithium-polymer batteries.

Lithium-ion batteries usually consist of three main parts: the positive electrode (cathode), the negative electrode (anode), and the electrolyte material that is placed between these two electrodes. In lithium-ion batteries, lithium is present as a positive ion (Li+) in the electrolyte. When the battery is charged, the lithium ions move to the negative electrode and are stored there.

  When the battery is discharged, lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode, and this flow of ions creates an electric current that can be used as a power source for a variety of things, including cell phones, laptops, portable electronic devices, and other devices. .

Lithium-polymer batteries are also based on lithium technology. In this type of battery, the liquid electrolyte is replaced by polymer solids, which are more flexible and malleable. Lithium-polymer batteries are made thin and light and are used for some thin and flexible electronic devices such as smart watches and wearable devices.

Lithium batteries are used in many electronic devices with features such as high capacity, light weight, long service life and no need for continuous maintenance.

The world’s largest lithium mine

The world’s largest lithium mine is currently the Salar de Nora mine in Australia. This mine, located in the Western state of Australia, has one of the largest lithium deposits in the world. The Salar de Nora mine is operated by Pilbara Minerals and supplies a significant amount of global lithium production.

Cellar de Nora mine has high quality lithium deposits in spodumene rocks. The lithium extracted from this mine is used as a raw material for the production of rechargeable batteries that are used in various industries, including automotive and renewable energy.

Lithium ore

Lithium ore, as one of the most important sources of lithium extraction, is mostly extracted as spodumene or lepidolite. Spodumene is one of the main lithium ores in which lithium is present in metallic form. . Sephardite usually appears in the form of large crystals and in the form of columns or plates. This rock is usually found in areas with faults and strong thermal changes.

Lepidolite is another rock that can contain significant amounts of lithium. This stone is usually purple or pink in color and can be found in large masses and small masses. In addition to lithium, lipidolite may contain other elements such as aluminum, potassium and light metals.

Method of extraction from lithium mine


Extraction of lithium from ores is often done through processes such as crushing, grinding, and chemical processing.

Lithium extraction from mines is mainly done in the following ways:

Chemical extraction:

In this method, lithium mine is first extracted as mineral soil and then a chemical process is performed to separate lithium from other elements. Various methods are used to separate lithium, but the more advanced and common process for extracting lithium from mines is the hydrometallurgical process. In this process, lithium ore is first transformed into lithium chemical compounds using chemical synthesis and pre-processing processes. Then, by means of hydrometallurgical processes, lithium is separated from other compounds and produced as pure chemical compounds of lithium.

Extraction from salt water:

Lithium is also extracted from natural sources of salt water. In this method, salt water is collected from seas, lakes and other sources of salt water. Then, using evaporation and condensation processes, salt water is purified in the form of lithium enrichment and concentration under certain pressure and temperatures.

Finally, lithium is separated from salt water and produced as chemical compounds or pure compounds. Extraction of lithium from mines or salt water may involve complex and costly processes. For this reason, lithium extraction is usually carried out in areas where there are rich resources of lithium and according to the economic conditions and available technology.

A sample of lithium ore or lithium

Tucker Pass Lithium Mine or Nevada Lithium Mine

The Nevada lithium mine you may be referring to is the Thacker Pass Lithium Project, also known as the Nevada Lithium Project. The Thacker Pass Lithium Mine, also known as the Thacker Pass Project, is a lithium mine located in Thacker Pass, Located in Humboldt County, Nevada, United States.
  It aims to extract lithium, a key component used in the production of electric vehicle batteries and renewable energy storage systems. The project is located on approximately 17,000 hectares of land and is expected to be one of the largest lithium mines in North America.


Mining process at Tucker Pass Lithium Mine or Nevada Lithium Mine

The Thacker Pass lithium mine is being developed by Lithium Nevada Corp., a subsidiary of Lithium Americas Corp., a Canadian-based resources company. The aim of this project is to extract lithium from clay deposits using a process called sulfuric acid leaching. The process involves extracting claystone, then processing it to extract lithium through a series of steps, including washing, filtration, and precipitation.

The development of the Thacker Pass lithium project has generated both support and opposition. Proponents argue that it will help domestic supply of lithium, which is vital for growing demand in the electric vehicle and renewable energy sectors, and reduce dependence on imports. The annual production capacity is expected to be 60,000 tons of battery-grade lithium carbonate. has, making it one of the largest lithium mines in the United States.

Tesla lithium mine

Tesla currently does not have a private mine to develop its lithium production capabilities. The company is considering mining lithium from clay deposits in Nevada, US, and is also exploring partnerships with mining companies to extract lithium directly from geothermal brine.

Tesla has reportedly been in talks with lithium producers in Chile for potential supply contracts. Tesla has signed deals with mining companies in Australia, such as Kidman Resources and Piedmont Lithium, to secure lithium supplies. The company is considering mining lithium from clay deposits in Nevada, US, as well as partnering with mining companies. For the direct extraction of lithium from geothermal brine
Has set.

Lithium-ion batteries are known as energy sources for electric vehicles and have gained more popularity in recent years. These batteries are used to supply the energy needed by electric vehicles. Interestingly, due to the growing trend of the electric vehicle industry, it is predicted that by 2030, about 60% of new car sales will be electric vehicles. This ratio shows the significant growth of this market and the acceptance of electric cars by more people.

For example, the Tesla Model S car uses lithium batteries to store energy. This car consumes about 12 kg of lithium in its battery. Using this advanced technology, Tesla has been able to achieve excellence in the field of electric vehicle production and has left its name as one of the pioneers of this industry.

The largest lithium producers in the world

With 8 million tons of lithium reserves, Chile has the largest reserves of this mineral in the world. After that, Australia and Argentina are in the second and third places, having 2.7 million tons and 2 million tons of lithium reserves, respectively.

The main producer of lithium in the world

Currently, the leaders in lithium production include Australia, Chile, China and Argentina. These countries are developing lithium. However, other countries such as the United States, Canada, Zimbabwe, and Portugal are actively developing their lithium capabilities to meet increased use.


Lithium mine in Iran

Lithium mines are located in the city of Nehbandan and the surrounding areas of Birjand, which is a part of Khorasan province, as well as the salt marshes of Qom, Isfahan and Semnan, Urmia lake and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari lakes, contain significant reserves of this specific element. Recently, a mine has been discovered in Hamedan region, which has lithium reserves. These findings show that the mentioned areas have potential for lithium extraction and exploitation.

Iran also has large mines of natural bitumen or gilsonite.

Iran’s largest lithium mine

The recent discovery of lithium mine in Hamedan province has aroused the excitement of scientists, industry experts and policy makers. This area containing lithium ore is located in a clay area and this makes the said reserve exist in a unique way in the country. Lithium is in high demand due to the growing popularity of electric vehicles and renewable energy sources. This discovery places Iran as a potential exporter of this valuable resource, which leads to increased economic opportunities.

According to the report of Sada and Sima of Iran and quoted by the Deputy Minister of Industry, Mining and Trade of Iran, the news of the discovery of large reserves of lithium in Hamadan province has been published on behalf of Iran. This discovery was made for the first time in this area and the estimated volume of lithium reserves is about 8.5 million tons [ore].

This news shows that Iran is one of the countries that has significant reserves of lithium. As a strategic and valuable metal, lithium has wide applications in technological industries and lithium batteries. The discovery of this significant amount of lithium reserves in Hamedan province can play an important role in meeting the needs of the electric vehicle industry and other industries related to this strategic metal.

  Mr. Deputy Minister of Mining Affairs of Hamedan Province Industry, Mining and Trade Organization announced that two lithium mines were discovered in Qahavand plain of Hamedan. Currently, the process of obtaining the discovery certificate and exploitation license of these mineral resources is underway. The discovery of these lithium mines, which has an area of 5 to 6 square kilometers and is the same size as the Qahavand Plain
It has taken about 4 years. According to estimates, the definitive reserve of this strategic metal is about 8 million and 500 thousand tons.

Lithium, first discovered in Sweden in 1817, is a strategic metal. Since then, many uses have been found for this metal. For example, it has been found that lithium can be alloyed with aluminum, cadmium, copper, and manganese in the manufacture of high-flying aircraft components.

Lithium is scattered in nature and is not found free due to its high reactivity. This metal is usually found in combination with one or more elements or other compounds in nature. Lithium forms a small part of all igneous rocks and is also present in many natural brines.

The importance of the discovery of lithium in Iran is due to several factors. First, as a strategic metal, lithium has many applications in various industries, including the aerospace industry and the battery industry. Having internal sources of lithium allows Iran to significantly reduce its dependence on other countries in meeting its needs for this metal.

Secondly, the discovery of lithium in Iran can bring many economic opportunities. The development of the mining industry and the exploitation of these mineral resources as a valuable part of the economy can help economic growth and create job opportunities in the country.

Economic consequences

The presence of lithium mine in Hamedan provides a unique advantage for Iran. This country can use the economic potential of lithium mining, export lithium products and attract foreign investment. This can boost employment opportunities, strengthen the local economy and lead to infrastructure development in the region.


Iran’s lithium reserves

Iran has one of the largest lithium reserves in the world, which is mainly located in the central and eastern parts of the country. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Iran’s lithium reserves are estimated at 2.7 million tons, which places this country among the top ten countries with the largest lithium reserves. These deposits have attracted the attention of domestic and international stakeholders, as they have great potential for Iran’s future economic development and its share in the global lithium market.


Lithium energy storage

Lithium-ion batteries also play an important role in storing energy produced from energy sources such as the sun and wind. These batteries are efficient and allow for intermittent intermittent power, ensuring a constant power supply even when the sun isn’t shining or the wind isn’t blowing. Lithium mines provide the raw materials needed to produce large-scale energy storage systems and enable the integration of renewable energies into existing power grids, enabling reliable and sustainable energy infrastructure to be strengthened.


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