bitumen and how it is formed

bitumen and how it is formed

What is bitumen?

Bitumen is also known by other terms such as bitumen and asphalt.
 bitumen, viscous and black liquid, and paste-like, which consists of a mixture of different hydrocarbons that exist naturally or are produced from the distillation and refining of crude oil.

asphalt is known for its waterproof properties and high adhesion, and it is used in construction industries, especially for the construction of roads and highways. Also, most bitumen production is done through the distillation of crude oil, which removes the lighter components of the crude oil, such as gasoline and diesel, and thus produces a heavierasphalt.

Oil deposits can also occur naturally at the bottom of very old lakes, where prehistoric organisms have decayed through chemical reactions and been exposed to heat and pressure.

Characteristic of bitumen ویژگی بیتومن

Characteristic of bitumen

Bitumen is produced by distilling crude oil and also occurs naturally.
It is known for its waterproof and adhesive properties.
Bitumen consists of complex hydrocarbons, containing elements such as calcium, iron, sulfur and hydrogen.
The price of bitumen is determined according to the state of the global economy and supply and demand for crude oil.
The world’s first bitumen futures contracts were launched on the Shanghai Futures Exchange in October 2013.

Knowledge of bitumen

Bitumen contains elements such as calcium, iron, sulfur and oxygen. Its quantitative and qualitative value depends on the source and type of crude oil from which it is extracted. Of course, throughout history, this material was used for the first time due to its natural adhesive and waterproof properties, which has been used to glue building materials together, as well as to line and insulate the surfaces and floors of ships, as well as as medicine.

Bitumen is generally intended for industrial use and is usually used in paving roads. Most roads and sidewalks are made of bitumen or a combination of bitumen and aggregates such as concrete.

In addition to being waterproof and acting as an adhesive, this material is used for other road projects.

Bitumen can permanently deform under heavy pressure. Constant pressure on the material and exposure to the heat of the sun can lead to cracking and oxidation, which can make asphalt brittle. The way it affects its physical shape depends on several things, including the composition of the asphalt mixture and the ambient temperature.

Physical properties bitumen

Or bitumen is a solid or semi-solid substance at ambient temperature, it becomes soft when the temperature increases and becomes harder when the temperature decreases. Also, at high temperature, bitumen has a Newtonian behavior like liquids, and as the temperature increases, the viscosity decreases. For this reason, it must be heated during use.
It should be noted that bitumen is a viscoelastic material. Bitumen or bitumen behaves like an elastic solid during short loading times and behaves like a viscous or viscous liquid during longer loading times. Therefore, the polar molecules in bitumen lead to the tendency of bitumen to aggregates, and it is a viscous and waterproof material. Bitumen is an engineering product, and its characteristics are based on physical characteristics, not on chemical characteristics.

The most common physical form of bitumen depends on temperature and has a special form at any temperature. The main feature of bitumen is its waterproof properties and high adhesion.
The most specific process of bitumen production through the distillation of crude oil causes the separation of light components of crude oil such as gasoline and diesel, and bitumen is the “heaviest” component of crude oil and is separated at a temperature of 340°C.

ترکیبات شیمیایی بیتومن Chemical composition of bitumen

Chemical compounds

The chemical compositions of bitumen types of bitumen are similar in general, but due to the fact that the sources of the main crude oil and the processes carried out during refining and mixing are slightly changed. It should be said that bitumens can generally be described as a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that contain a large number of different chemical compounds with a relatively high molecular weight.

The smallest size of molecular compounds of bitumen or bitumen in the process of making asphalt is determined by “cut point” distillation of about 300 daltons. Of course, past research shows that there are molecular weights up to 10,000 daltons, while some research shows that if there are molecules larger than 1,500, there are probably very few.

Chemically, the molecules in bitumen are a combination of alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic substances, and heteromolecules containing sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, and metals, including oil, resin, and asphaltene, and the asphaltene in bitumen is the reason for its hardness.

In bitumen, the most polar compounds form the structural compounds that give the bitumen its hardness or modulus. If compounds with low polarity give flexibility and low temperature properties to asphalt, these compounds are compatible with medium polarity in bitumen or bitumen with the least and most polar compounds. While tar or bitumen is composed of interconnected molecules, analyzing each of these compounds separately will be impractical. . For this reason, bitumen compounds are classified into several major and polar classes:

Saturated compounds, and saturated hydrocarbons where the percentage of saturation is related to the softening point.
Naphthenic aromatics, consisting of semi-hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds.
Combination of polar aromatics, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and carboxylic acids.
and asphaltenes, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and heterocyclic compounds

You should know that asphaltenes are separated through the “solvent extraction process” method, but some other parts are separated using the chromatography method.
Usually, the compounds of naphthenic aromatics and polar aromatics are the most common components of bitumen. And then, most natural bitumens contain organosulfur compounds, as a result of which their total sulfur content is up to 4%. And nickel and vanadium are also found at <10 ppm level, this product is soluble in carbon disulfide. Typically, in the form of colloids, asphaltenes are modeled as the dispersed phase and maltenes as the continuous phase. And it is almost impossible to separate all the different molecules of asphalt (bitumen or bitumen) because the number of molecules with different chemical structure is very large.

Bitumen performance method relates the interaction of bitumen molecules with each other or with other materials such as water accumulation and surfaces. The presence of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and metals in some molecules makes them slightly polar. The importance of molecules containing heteroatoms in bitumen chemistry is the ability to create molecular interactions that strongly affect the physical properties and performance of bitumen. Compounds containing heteroatom molecules can be different in terms of amount and properties in bitumen extracted from different sources of crude oil.
Bitumen analysis
The value element
Carbon (w%) 2.80-3.84
Hydrogen (w%) 9.8-10.8
Nitrogen (w%) 0.2-1.2
Sulfur (w%) 0.9 – 6.6
Oxygen (w%) 0.4-0.1
Nickel (ppm) 10-139
Vanadium (ppm) 7-1590
Iron (ppm) 5-147
Manganese (ppm) 0.1-3.7
Calcium (ppm) 1-335
Magnesium (ppm) 1-134
Sodium (ppm) 159-6

In most tests, the mass percentage of sulfur element in bitumen or bitumen may be between 1-7% and includes various sulfur compounds such as thiophenes and sulfides. Research in this case indicates that the heteroatoms, sulfur and nitrogen, are largely present in stable ring configurations. However, nitrogenous compounds are not very common, but pyrrole, indole and carbazole groups are found in some bitumen. With this interpretation, oxygen is mainly present in the structure of the functional groups of carboxylic acids and esters. Metals are also mostly observed in porphyrin-like structures

قیمت بیتومن bitumen price

The price of bitumen

Because bitumen is a residual material during the refining of crude oil into liquefied gas and gasoline. For this reason, the price of bitumen is highly dependent on a set of factors that affect the price of crude oil. This also includes supply and demand and geopolitical stability in the world’s crude oil producing regions.

Another factor that affects the price of bitumen is the price difference between heavy and light crude oil. On the other hand, it is produced as a by-product during the distillation process for heavy crude oil. For this reason, refineries’ decisions to refine heavy and light crude oil are very important for bitumen prices.

Among other factors that determine the price, global economic conditions have a negative effect on the price of bitumen. For example, increased demand for road asphalt during economic boom can lead to increased prices. China plays an important role in determining the demand and purchase and determining the price of bitumen in recent times due to its heavy investment in the development of its road infrastructure.

History:

In ancient times, ancient civilizations traded these materials, and Herodotus, a Greek historian of the fifth century BC, claimed that the walls of ancient Babylon contained bitumen.

The ancient Egyptians also used bitumen in various industries, such as sealing, insulation, and they even used this amazing substance in embalming corpses.

An example of bitumen

One of the types of natural bitumen can be found in the oil sands reserves of the world. Canada has the largest reserves in the world, especially in the province of Alberta. And other deposits of tar sands can be found in Venezuela, Russia and the United States.

How is bitumen made?

Manufacturing Method It is produced through a refining process in which crude oil is reduced. It removes the lighter components of the crude oil and leaves the heavier bitumen behind. This material has many industrial applications. It is used in the construction of roads, which is better known as asphalt, and also in roofing. As mentioned, bitumen also exists naturally and is found in the oil sands of Canada.

Application of bitumen کاربرد بیتومن بیتومین

What is the main use of bitumen?

Bitumen or bitumen is mostly used for industrial purposes. It can be seen in the construction industry where it is used to build roads, which is why it is commonly called asphalt in this application. Because it has the properties of moisture insulation and adhesion, it makes it a suitable product for covering the roof.
How do I invest in natural bitumen?

Natural bitumen buying and selling transactions are available with Gilsonite Mud mine. This natural product is intended for crude oil refinery operators, for mixing with bitumen and isobam, and bitumen sellers and end consumers.

Production stages:

1- In the first stage, lighter materials such as propane and gasoline are separated from crude oil. This step is carried out at atmospheric pressure.

2- The second stage

In the second stage, heavier materials such as kerosene and diesel are removed from crude oil.

The second phase is done in a pressure close to vacuum.

And at the end, a mixture of very fine solids is left, which is immersed in a substance called malten, which is similar to grease.

The concentration and stickiness of bitumen is due to its chemical composition, mostly large hydrocarbon molecules known as asphaltene and resin, which are present in lighter oils but are highly concentrated in bitumen. In addition, bitumen contains large amounts of metals such as nickel and vanadium and non-metallic mineral elements such as nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur.

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